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What is a Central Line?

A central line (aka central venous catheter) is a catheter (tube) doctors place in the large vein in the neck, chest or groin to give medication or fluids or to collect blood for medical tests. Central lines can remain in place for weeks or months and be likely to cause a serious infection. Central lines are commonly used in intensive care units (ICUs).

What other catheters involve Vascular Access?

PuraCath’s technology will work on all vascular access catheters including PICCs (peripherally inserted central catheter), midlines, CVCs (central venous catheter), and IVs (intravenous).

What is CLABSI?

A Catheter Line Associated Bloodstream Infection (CLABSI) is a primary laboratory confirmed bloodstream infection in a patient with a central line at the time of (or within 48 hours prior to) the onset of symptoms and the infection is not related to an infection from another site. This is a serious infection that occurs when germs (bacteria, fungi, or viruses) enter the bloodstream through the central line.

Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) result in hundreds of thousands of deaths each year and 8+ billions of dollars in added costs to the U.S. healthcare system each year, yet these infections are preventable.

Vascular access catheters, including central lines, must be placed properly (including hand hygiene, skin antiseptic, sterile gloves and gown, cap, mask, large sterile drape), and healthcare providers must use stringent infection control practices each time they check the line or change the dressing. However, literature and studies have shown that compliance to these strict protocols is less than 20%.

Symptoms
  • Difficulty in drawing blood or flow.
  • Swelling or warmth at the site.
  • Yellow or green drainage.
  • Pain or discomfort.
  • Fever and chills.
  • Difficulty in drawing blood or flow.

If a CLABSI is not properly treated in time, sepsis or death can occur as a result. Symptoms of sepsis are altered mental status, hypotension, lethargy, and fatigue.

Diagnosis
A clinical exam of the catheter as well as a laboratory exam are important for diagnosis and management. A blood culture is the most important step in addition to a complete blood count, serum electrolytes, and renal and liver function tests. A blood culture should determine if the infection is a gram-positive or gram-negative organism, or fungi.
Treatment
A parenteral anti-staphylococcal penicillin or cephalosporin like nafcillin or cefazolin is typical with a staph infection. If methicillin resistant staph (MRSA) is present, then parenteral vancomycin is recommended.

IV fluconazole or echinocandins (micafungin, caspofungin, anidulafungin) are preferred for infections related to candida or fungi.

Intravenous (IV) antimicrobial therapy is recommended for the following durations based on the organism isolated:

  1. S.aureus: 14 days
  2. Candida: 14 days
  3. Coagulase-negative Staph: 7 days
  4. Enterococci and gram negative bacilli: 10-14 days
Prevention

The Firefly™ vascular access disinfection system provides ultraviolet (UV) disinfection of vascular access catheters that is safe, fast, efficient, and more thorough, thereby drastically reducing the incidence of CLABSIs for patients with CVCs, PICCs, midlines, and IVs.

If you are a patient, physician, or provider and would like to learn more about the FireflyTM vascular access disinfection system, please contact us.

If you are a patient and would like more information about the Firefly™ vascular access disinfection system, please contact us here.

If you are a patient and would like more information about the Firefly TM , please contact us here.